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童年期,给孩子带来情绪的困扰有哪些——客体丧失

 
时间:2019-05-10 22:28点击:
童年期的典型危险情境是什么?给孩子带来情绪的困扰有哪些?
        尽管孩子在成长过程中会面对很多危险,但是这些危险会伴随孩子的发展逐渐变得成形和清晰。随着时间增长,孩子把身体作为自我的体验使用的越来越多,这种对于受伤的担心就会逐渐增加。Charles Brenner (1982)认为童年期的典型危险情境就是“童年期的灾难”。它们在发展过程中出现并影响着我们每一个人。

这些危险情境包括:
        第一、客体丧失
        第二、爱的丧失
        第三、身体完整的丧失(阉割焦虑)
        第四、内疚:超我的爱的丧失(自尊的丧失)

       给孩子带来情绪的困扰有哪些?
先来说说客体丧失:
        儿童面临的最早的灾难是客体的丧失。我们指的是儿童的爱的客体的丧失,通常是父母或者其他重要的抚养者。婴儿完全依赖于他们的照顾者,哪怕父母离开视线时间久一点,他们都会感到相当痛苦。这是因为婴儿还没有发展出永久性的概念,即心理学家所说的客体恒定性。对婴儿来说,看不到父母不仅仅意味着 “眼不见,心不想”,而是意味着父母永远消失了、不见了,就此永远失去他们。当我们把这些和婴儿对父母的完全依赖联系在一起,我们就可以理解为什么婴儿如此渴望照料者,为什么父母的丧失是如此的痛苦。那些在生命早期就要处理父母或者照料者的丧失(即客体的丧失)的儿童,通常会遇到埃里克森Erik Erikson 所描述的基本信任感的发展问题。通常他们的心理会围绕这个丧失被组建起来,而这会影响他们整个一生。

英文

    Although the child faces many dangers in the course of growing up, they can be organized developmentally.  The infant, for example, doesn’t worry about getting injured – this concern grows with time and the child’s investment in her or her own body an experience of self.  Charles Brenner (1982) has referred to the prototypical danger situations of childhood as the “calamities of childhood.”  They occur within a developmental sequence and they affect each and every one of us.  They are as follows:
    · Loss of the object 
· Loss of love 
· Loss of bodily integrity (castration anxiety) 
· Guilt: loss of the superego’s love (loss of self esteem) 
    Loss of the object.  The earliest calamity the child faces is loss of the object. By this we mean the loss of the object of the child’s love, usually the parent or other significant caretaker.  Infants are utterly dependent on their caretakers, and can be considerably distressed when the parent is even out of sight for an extended period of time.  This is because the infant has not developed the idea of permanence, what psychologists call object constancy.  For the infant, out of sight is not only out of mind, but disappeared, gone, lost forever.  When we put this together with the utter dependence the infant experiences in relation to the parents, we can begin to understand why the infant wants so much to be with the caregiver, and why the loss of the parent is so distressing. Children that have to cope at an early age with parental or caretaker loss, the loss of the object, often experience what Erik Erikson has described as a problem with the development of basic trust.  Often their minds become organized around this loss, which can affect their experience throughout life.
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